The aim of that it tasks are to analyze the end result off reproduce and you can decades towards the egg production and the egg additional and inner quality into the four Italian twin-mission breeds , at first and several weeks after than simply first weeks laying craft one to took place, correspondingly, at the end of summer/start of fall and also in wintertime, around adjustable environmental requirements.
2.1. Animals and you can Rearing Conditions
Five Italian chicken breeds, Pepoi (PP), Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER), Robusta Maculata (RM) and Robusta Lionata (RL), was basically sensed toward research. The human body pounds regarding mature women try 1.twenty-five kilogram inside PP, 2.29 kilogram when you look at the Er and step three.05 kilogram within the RM and you can RL. Its supply ‘s the Veneto region (Italy): PP is actually an old local breed; their origin is dated to this new XIX century, but zero exact research on their genetic origin occur. One other types are built into the Veneto inside the 1950s: the new Emergency room breed comes from Sussex (tinted eggshell reproduce) and Rhode Isle (brown eggshell reproduce) types, while toward RM and you may RL breeds, Brown Orpington and you can Light The usa, a couple of brownish eggshell breeds were utilized . Plus the adult pounds, this type of types differ within their plumage the colour: it’s fantastic during the PP, Emergency room suggests erminate plumage, RM plumage is mostly white having black colored extremities in several regions of the body, black feathers off primaries and you may tail and you can RL shows a good tawny plumage that have black feathers out of primaries and tail. Every types (Profile S1) reveal unmarried brush and you can lay shaded eggshell eggs (Profile S2).
2. Content and techniques
Birds of for every reproduce hatched at the same time (second half of elizabeth ranch of your Center to have Poultry Biodiversity Preservation from the Veneto area (it regularly provides for new rearing of these breeds also as for the eggs development having incubation and you can brooding), inside the North Italy (45°02?53? N), away from hatching for the pubertal decades and on the installing period, which already been on stop of june to your start of autumn (Shape 1), according to reproduce. Serving, rearing conditions (photoperiod, temperature) and you can prophylaxis steps had been a similar on four types, ever since away from hatching to your stop of the learned months, that was into the , in the 53 days of age. The new newly hatched chicks have been remaining inside in the very first 4 days away from lives, in the an environmental temperature decreasing out-of 32 in order to 24 °C, less than infra-purple radiation lights, towards the litter. From the 1.5 months old, the latest birds got totally free the means to access outdoor places, regarding springtime in order to autumn and you will cold temperatures. Per reproduce (sixty hens) got totally free access to backyard (5 m dos /bird) room (armed with linear drinkers), where the hens lived day long, and to indoor (cuatro hens/meters dos ) area (timber shavings and straw litter, with perches and game feeders), mainly used getting laying eggs (collective nests) and at night; the area (indoor and you can backyard) offered to for each reproduce are split by the netting.
At the beginning of laying (around twenty-two months of age on breed which have earlier onset of putting), for the Sep–October, according to reproduce, the fresh photoperiod is absolute and you will coming down, according to seasons therefore the geographical standing of your trial channel during the Northern Italy (typically, 12L:12D), and for the 2nd several months (out of 38 months old, off December to help you 53 days old), artificial light try gradually increased (in interior room, incandescent light bulb, on the sixty lux) to track down a great photoperiod out-of 14L:10D. The photoperiod are controlled by a timekeeper, plus it is attained by flipping on the newest white one hour in advance of sunrise and you may turning off it an hour or so shortly after sunset. The newest external environment temperature try 10 ± 3.4 °C and 11 ± step three.0 °C, respectively, into the first (right from the start out-of October into stop from November) therefore the next (from the beginning away from January for the prevent regarding March) putting episodes, if the investigation on the yield results and you may eggs quality were amassed. The newest pets were given offer libitum industrial nourishes according to the physiological stage (about three diversified commercial nourishes during the growing months). For the first installing phase (26–33 weeks of age, not as much as decreasing natural photoperiod), in the Latin Feels agencia event the breeds started putting, new birds received a commercial pelleted feed (PG = 16%, Me personally = 11.8 MJ/kilogram, Ca = step one.1%, P = 0.6%) and you may maize (PG = 9.1%, Myself = 13.seven MJ/kg), at a proportion of just one:step one. It’s well worth remembering you to, at this decades, only the dual-objective and you will tinted eggshell breeds showed a variable start of putting and you can egg creation price, while brand new hens from the other varieties of the Preservation Middle to have Biodiversity and you may hatched at the same time of your own examined types, including the white eggshell types, didn’t begin putting (Padovana reproduce) otherwise it showed a very light putting craft (Polverara reproduce), never attaining the threshold of ten% hen–time eggs manufacturing. The main cause of the choice of new Conservation Middle, to not ever explore a rss to own putting hens during the this period, try on account of not forcing the fresh pullets to help you eggs development throughout a season having coming down temperature and you may photoperiod. The new wild birds grew outside, under favourable requirements to own skeletal health, walking on ground and you will below solar power light. Regarding outdoor space for each reproduce, the clear presence of lawn accessible to new wild birds is actually large throughout the the fresh expanding months than simply within onset of laying, hence happened following the summer season, when the rain was scarce and you can don’t allow for a beneficial yard regrowth. Out of 38 in order to 53 months of age, and you may around expanding photoperiod, this new hens had been fed a professional pelleted offer getting putting (PG = 16%, Myself = eleven.5 MJ/kilogram, Ca = cuatro.2%, P = 0.6%). The feeds consisted generally away from maize and you will soybean.